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When we do SNA, we remove the independence assumption and treat all ties as potentially dependent on each other. This makes traditional statistical methods e. Some of you may have used LI in business intelligence or law enforcement work, or seen it on TV. However, LI allows for a mixing of different node and edge types in the same network—i. In this example, bold words are nodes, or actors, and italic are actions, or edges. The problem is understanding on a quantitative level whether the act of giving money is different than the act of procuring drugs—and thus LI relies on human-level understanding of language and is qualitative in its pure form.

However, the application of quantitative metrics centrality measures is dangerous because mixing nodes and edges of different meanings e. Unfortunately, this does not stop the software from computing these metrics.

ACME Consulting was an old auditing shop. Founded in the s, it was a family-owned business for more than 25 years. However, all good things must come to an end, and the owner, nearing his retirement years, decided to move to Boca Raton and embark on a new career of fly fishing and being a full-time grandfather. The auditors and the IT groups formed their own divisions, of about people each the org chart below is greatly simplified.

The departments bickered with each other over resources and requirements, problem resolution took far too long and required too many meetings, and cost the company many billable hours. He wanted to build a modern, client-oriented, responsive organization. Shortly after his arrival, ACME was reorganized. The secretarial pool was dissolved, and its functions were distributed to client sites. On the surface, the change was good. The project teams finally got to know their clients; finance and IT people finally talked to each other and realized that they were not actually born on different planets, routine problems got resolved in hours instead of weeks.

Customers were happier.

But under the surface, trouble was brewing. Then, Conrad did what any manager in this situation would do—he hired a consultant. The results were nothing short of astounding—at least to the CEO. Let us reproduce this figure:. After more than 20 years with ACME, Frida had accumulated both factual and tacit knowledge that made the firm stable.


Justin Bieber Tattoos The Word “Grace” On His Face | Praise

This story has a happy ending. Frida was promoted and stayed at the headquarters as a trusted advisor, training the younger employees—and the company rapidly recovered. This story serves to demonstrate that informal networks matter, more than many managers would like to admit. Every organization has information bottlenecks, rumor mills, competing cliques and other potential problems that only Social Network Analysis can detect. I tell this story every time I teach Social Networks to various audiences—from graduate students to government officials.

It is in fact impossible to do so. Informal social networks emerge in the harshest conditions, despite all efforts to prevent them. Just like the Internet, social networks tend to route around damaged connections and restore communications. In the infamous Butyrka prison in Moscow, the authorities strictly forbid communication between cells. The wall are too thick to allow yelling from cell to cell, there is no common exercise yard, and every attempt at communication detected by authorities is punished by solitary confinement.

One cannot imagine a harsher environment for maintenance of an informal social network.

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It works essentially as a packet-switching network. The packets are then either received and read, or routed on to the next cell—until they reach the intended recipient. Over time, as prisoners are moved to other cells, shipped to serve the rest of their sentence in Siberia, or released, the network adapts and is continuously optimized for reliability. This system even allows for broadcast messages e.

This is much more difficult—the process of moving a prisoner to a faraway prison camp involves many searches that make shipping a letter or a package with a courier nearly impossible. Thus, important information gets communicated by word-of-mouth through trusted people—usually professional criminals with many prison terms behind them.

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The information migrates from one medium to the next and, if needed, is disseminated along the way. The informal network also serves more peaceful purposes, letting experienced criminals consult with younger ones in the profession, resolving property disputes, and establishing a firm set of norms of behavior that is remarkably civilized for the population.

One curious aspect is that the Soviet government originally encouraged or pretended not to notice the development of this code of behavior—as it helped the authorities keep the Gulag system under control, and marginalize political prisoners to the advantage of the professional thieves. The Al Qaeda manual of operations states that a cell preparing an attack should be small, not more than 6 members.

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The members of the cell live together in a safe-house and only leave it to go on reconnaissance or supply missions, and maintain little or no ties to the community. Only the cell leader possesses information about contacts and supply routes within the larger organization—which minimizes the risk of exposure should some of the operatives frequently young and badly trained be caught.

Please be careful when downloading on corporate or government networks as possession of this document could be misinterpreted. Sequestering a small group of people inside a safe-house ensures that the operatives will bond with each other to the exclusion of their own families or outside connections. These bonds act as a positive feedback loop, helping extremist ideology to be accepted and amplified within the group. Keeping the group small, while an obvious limitation to the size and complexity of the operation, allows everyone in the group to constantly monitor everyone else, and not leave a hiding place where a single individual may communicate with the outside world and give away the location and plans of the cell.

Keeping a single connection to the outside world through the cell leader allows the organization to control as well as filter and distort all information that goes in and out of the safe-house, making the operatives fully dependent on the organization for survival. I used the operations manual and a number of other sources to build a model of social network structure similar to that of a terrorist network.

In this network, two separate groups of operatives are preparing two separate attacks—a group on the right headed by Agent 6 and a larger group on the left headed by Agent Intuitively, if a law enforcement or military officer is shown this picture, he would recognize agents 6 and 36 as leaders—or important in some way—and propose that they be targeted for an offensive operation whether it is an arrest or a drone strike. In fact, this is one of the most common ways social network analysis is applied in the counter-terrorism community.

The leader of the cell is indeed a weak spot and his removal presents a significant problem for the operatives—but, in fact, the informal network of the terrorist organization is capable of quickly recovering from such an attack. The second when a brand is, like, "We trust your judgment," I'm just, like, "Oh, my God, you're the best thing ever," and I'm 10 times more likely to, like, give a real good, genuine integration. So I try to keep it transparent and honest because they know it's my job and they know that I have to pay bills.

They get that, so it's all good. My plan for the future is world domination, but in my own— by my own rules, which is the coolest part because it's, like, I am doing what I love, and I feel like a lot of opportunities are there if I want to work for them. It's like if you get Taco Bell to sponsor your stuff, it's, like, "Hey look, I'm important enough that Taco Bell realizes you're an important audience to reach, so let's all geek out about Taco Bell for a video.

I don't care. I don't hear young people talking about selling out. I don't even— I'm not sure they even know what it means. That's probably not what you meant, though. BOY: You can sell out, like, an album or you could, like, sell out, like— like you're a sellout, like you're nowhere in life. You're never going to get back on top.

Social Network Analysis for Startups by Alexander Kouznetsov, Maksim Tsvetovat

Has Tyler won the game of likes? And is this really social media's promise of self-determination, promoting movies in exchange for virtual prizes, playing the class clown in public to get free skateboard gear, expressing your identity through junk food advertisements? Can kids really win when they don't make the rules? Maybe that's why some of them are opting to become the game makers themselves.

It's not the adult advertisers versus the, you know, supplicant teens of yore. It's now, like, the teenagers are creating this architecture. They grow up and they become, you know, super-rich Silicon Valley types. And then there's this giant underclass of people forced to go "Like, like, like, like, like," and who are probably around their age, you know?

And what are they choosing to build? BRIAN WONG: Kiip is a rewards network, and it takes moments that already exist in apps and games, moments in time that, again, are meaningful to you, and having brands be there to make that moment even better. Level up in a game or accumulate likes on a social app, and seemingly out of nowhere comes a coupon for a free product.

User clicks on that, and boom, they just got their reward. They're awesome. But Brian's more than just an ad man, he's actually a kind of psychologist. We don't even call ourselves ads to consumers. Terminology we use is "rewards" and "moments," and there's really no mention of "ads" or even "media. So that's the psychological principle we're offering. It's almost Orwellian. But maybe it was inevitable. After all, this generation has grown up in the arena of likes.

So it's no wonder that they're also becoming master manipulators of social media themselves, like the hidden game masters in The Hunger Games. Like, social media kind of rips people apart. They are all put into this arena where you're forced to try to survive on your own.

But basically, they're in there alone trying to survive. You get people to like you. It feels empowering and it feels like a social community, but ultimately, kids are out there alone, trying to live and survive, kids like Daniela Diaz, an 8th grader in southern California, who has only just begun her journey into the arena. In my imagination, I see myself standing in front of a crowd, in front of thousands of people.

I love to sing and singing is my passion. And I breathe music.